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УДК: 613.96 DOI:10.33920/med-08-2112-05

Analysis of the prevalence of smoking among young people taking into account socio-economic and psycho-emotional factors

Dolich Vladimir Nikolaevich Research Assistant, Department of Medical Preventive and Innovative Technologies, Saratov Hygiene Medical Research Center of the FBSI «FSC Medical and Preventive Health Risk Management Technologies», 410022, Saratov, Russia, st. Zarechnaya, building 1A, E-mail: vndolich@mail.ru, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8980-5117
Komleva Nataliya Evgen’evna D. Sc. in Medical Sciences, Head of Department of Рreventive Medicine and Innovative Technologies, Saratov Hygiene Medical Research Center of the FBSI «FSC Medical and Preventive Health Risk Management Technologies», 410022, Saratov, Russia, st. Zarechnaya, building 1A, E-mail: NEKomleva@yandex.ru, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5360-712Х
Zaikina Inna Viktorovna Ph.D. of Medical Sciences, Senior Research Officer, Department of Medical Preventive and Innovative Technologies, Saratov Hygiene Medical Research Center of the FBSI «FSC Medical and Preventive Health Risk Management Technologies», 410022, Saratov, Russia, st. Zarechnaya, building 1A, E-mail: innaza2@mail.ru, https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4234-7056
Mazilov Svyatoslav Igorevich Ph.D. of Biological Sciences, Research Assistant, Laboratories of innovative Methods in Medicine, Saratov Hygiene Medical Research Center of the FBSI «FSC Medical and Preventive Health Risk Management Technologies», 410022, Saratov, Russia, st. Zarechnaya, building 1A, E-mail: smazilov@ya.ru, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8220-145Х
Rajkin Sergej Sergeevich Research Assistant, Department of Medical Preventive and Innovative Technologies, Saratov Hygiene Medical Research Center of the FBSI «FSC Medical and Preventive Health Risk Management Technologies», 410022, Saratov, Russia, st. Zarechnaya, building 1A, E-mail: rser3001@yandex.ru, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5817-2994
Yakovleva Tat’yana Aleksandrovna Research Assistant, Department of Medical Preventive and Innovative Technologies, Saratov Hygiene Medical Research Center of the FBSI «FSC Medical and Preventive Health Risk Management Technologies», 410022, Saratov, Russia, st. Zarechnaya, building 1A, E-mail: niusgsar@mail.ru, https://orcid.org/000-0003-1195-315Х
Ключевые слова: prevalence of smoking, young people

This article is devoted to the study of factors contributing to the formation of adherence to smoking in young people. The study involved 300 young people, of which 154 students of the Saratov College of Water Transport, Construction and Service, 146 students of a medical university. The study of the prevalence of smoking was carried out using adapted questionnaires, including questions about adherence to tobacco smoking, as well as modern alternative means of smoking (electronic cigarettes), awareness of the dangers of smoking tobacco products and electronic cigarettes. Socio-economic and psychological factors that contribute to the formation of addiction were studied. The results of the study indicate a high prevalence of smoking in young people surveyed, while more than half of all smoking respondents prefer alternative means of smoking. A higher prevalence of alternative means of smoking among girls compared to boys should be noted. It was established that the smoking of electronic cigarettes prevails among people with a higher level of material well-being. The results of the study of respondents' awareness of the dangers of smoking showed a high level of awareness of the respondents. At the same time, awareness of the harm of alternative means of smoking is at a low level. The analysis of the causes of smoking among the surveyed showed that people living separately from their parents are more susceptible to smoking. According to the respondents themselves, an important role in the formation of addiction is a negative example of the social environment (smoking parents, friends, acquaintances). As a result of the correlation analysis, the relationship between smoking and the level of psycho-emotional stress was revealed. Thus, the result of the study indicates that the high prevalence of smoking in young people is due to the impact of socio-economic and psychological factors that need to be taken into account in the fight against the formation of addiction among the youth.

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Smoking remains one of the most common problems of modern medicine [1], as it has a negative impact on the functions of all organs and systems of the body and poses a threat to the development of all non-communicable diseases, which are the main cause of disability and premature mortality [2]. Tobacco smoke contains more than 4,000 identified compounds, 60 of which are carcinogenic [2]. The overall death rate from tobacco smoking increased from 5.4 million in 2004 to 8 million in 2019 [3]. In 2005, the prevalence of smoking in Russia was about 58% among men and 12% among women [3]. By 2019, in Russia, the number of smoking men was 60% and smoking women 23% [4]. Currently, the scientific literature has accumulated a huge number of publications devoted to the study of the effect of tobacco smoke, nicotine on various functional systems of the body [5, 6], and ways to combat smoking, however, the prevalence of smokers remains extremely high. So, in 2019, there were approximately 1.1 billion smokers around the world, 80% of whom were residents of low- and middle-income countries [7]. Reduction of the prevalence of smoking is actively hindered by the policy of companies that develop alternative means of smoking (Vapes, glo, IQOS, Juul, Logic compact), whose active advertising is widespread in social networks and the Internet, positioning electronic means of nicotine delivery as the safest option for smoking [8, 9]. It should be noted that accessible types of electronic cigarettes are aimed at the youth, since the earlier a person begins to consume nicotine in any form, the stronger his or her addiction will form, leading to lifelong consumption. Thus, this issue is becoming more relevant among the youth and requires active study to take preventive measures to reduce the prevalence of smoking among the youth.

The purpose of the research: analysis of the prevalence of smoking among young people taking into account socio-economic and psycho-emotional factors.

Based on the Saratov Medical Scientific Centre for Hygiene "Federal Research Centre of Medical and Preventive Health Risk Management Technologies", 300 young people (from 18 to 20 years old) were surveyed and divided into two groups. The first group consisted of students of the Saratov College of Water Transport, Construction and Service (n = 154), the second one included students of a medical university (n = 146). Questionnaires were used, developed and adapted for students, including the following questions: the commitment of correspondents to tobacco smoking, awareness of the dangers of smoking tobacco products and electronic cigarettes, the level of material well-being, living conditions (in a family or without parents), social environment (smoking parents, friends, acquaintances), subjective assessment of the level of psycho-emotional stress, as well as the level of reactive and personal anxiety (Spielberger-Khanin test). The design of the study: single-stage transverse. Statistical processing of data was carried out using STATISTICA10. The study was conducted according to the principles of the Helsinki Declaration in compliance with the rules of bioethics, after obtaining voluntary consent.

Для Цитирования:
Dolich Vladimir Nikolaevich, Komleva Nataliya Evgen’evna, Zaikina Inna Viktorovna, Mazilov Svyatoslav Igorevich, Rajkin Sergej Sergeevich, Yakovleva Tat’yana Aleksandrovna, Analysis of the prevalence of smoking among young people taking into account socio-economic and psycho-emotional factors. Санитарный врач. 2021;12.
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