Smoking remains one of the most common problems of modern medicine , as it has a negative impact on the functions of all organs and systems of the body and poses a threat to the development of all non-communicable diseases, which are the main cause of disability and premature mortality . Tobacco smoke contains more than 4,000 identified compounds, 60 of which are carcinogenic . The overall death rate from tobacco smoking increased from 5.4 million in 2004 to 8 million in 2019 . In 2005, the prevalence of smoking in Russia was about 58% among men and 12% among women . By 2019, in Russia, the number of smoking men was 60% and smoking women 23% . Currently, the scientific literature has accumulated a huge number of publications devoted to the study of the effect of tobacco smoke, nicotine on various functional systems of the body [5, 6], and ways to combat smoking, however, the prevalence of smokers remains extremely high. So, in 2019, there were approximately 1.1 billion smokers around the world, 80% of whom were residents of low- and middle-income countries . Reduction of the prevalence of smoking is actively hindered by the policy of companies that develop alternative means of smoking (Vapes, glo, IQOS, Juul, Logic compact), whose active advertising is widespread in social networks and the Internet, positioning electronic means of nicotine delivery as the safest option for smoking [8, 9]. It should be noted that accessible types of electronic cigarettes are aimed at the youth, since the earlier a person begins to consume nicotine in any form, the stronger his or her addiction will form, leading to lifelong consumption. Thus, this issue is becoming more relevant among the youth and requires active study to take preventive measures to reduce the prevalence of smoking among the youth.
The purpose of the research: analysis of the prevalence of smoking among young people taking into account socio-economic and psycho-emotional factors.
Based on the Saratov Medical Scientific Centre for Hygiene "Federal Research Centre of Medical and Preventive Health Risk Management Technologies", 300 young people (from 18 to 20 years old) were surveyed and divided into two groups. The first group consisted of students of the Saratov College of Water Transport, Construction and Service (n = 154), the second one included students of a medical university (n = 146). Questionnaires were used, developed and adapted for students, including the following questions: the commitment of correspondents to tobacco smoking, awareness of the dangers of smoking tobacco products and electronic cigarettes, the level of material well-being, living conditions (in a family or without parents), social environment (smoking parents, friends, acquaintances), subjective assessment of the level of psycho-emotional stress, as well as the level of reactive and personal anxiety (Spielberger-Khanin test). The design of the study: single-stage transverse. Statistical processing of data was carried out using STATISTICA10. The study was conducted according to the principles of the Helsinki Declaration in compliance with the rules of bioethics, after obtaining voluntary consent.