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УДК: 332-871 DOI:10.33920/sel-04-2102-07

Alternative environmental development of the Arctic zone of Russia

Shelomentsev V.N. PhD in Law, Professor, Head of the Department of Agricultural and Environmental Law, State University of Land Management, Moscow, E-mail: Vns 1956@mail.ru
Ключевые слова: ecology, environmental national projects, elimination of environmental damage in the Arctic Zone

The article analyzes the environmental directions of the Annual Address of the President of the Russian Federation to the Federal Assembly, as well as the ways of implementing "The Strategy for the Development of the Arctic Zone of the Russian Federation and Ensuring National Security for the Period Up to the Year 2020", "The Road Map for the Elimination of Environmental Damage Caused as a Result of Activities on the Territory of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation in the Arctic Zone", where great attention is paid to the issues of the environmental situation inside Russia, as well as the implementation of the national alternative environmental projects.


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As has long been noted, the power of Russia will grow by developing the territories of Siberia, and especially the Far North where only 8% of the population lives. Being sparsely populated and difficult to access, these territories face severe climatic conditions of permafrost, and all cargoes have to be delivered there in a short period of time lasting three months of summer navigation, including fuel, food, and construction materials [1]. Deliveries are made by sea and river, which leads to a strong increase in prices and complicates the development of this region. According to the latest statistics of the Russian Federation, 76% of oil, 93% of natural gas, 95% of coal, 95% of gold, 100% of diamonds, practically most of the rare-earth metals of the periodic table, the major part of nickel, copper, aluminium, and 90% of salmon roe are mined in these territories. The contribution of these regions to the formation of Russia's GDP is 30%, and their share in the formation of export revenues is close to 70%. After inspecting the territories of the Far North, Franz Josef Land in particular, in 2010, President Putin ordered to clean the Arctic. Moreover, he approved the "Strategy for the Development of the Arctic Zone of the Russian Federation and Ensuring National Security for the Period Up to the Year 2020". The legal basis of this document is the implementation of national interests, as well as the achievement of state policy, in particular, sustainable socioeconomic development that will ensure national security in general [2]. A huge role is assigned to environmental management and environmental protection that must indicate in certain territories the presence of particularly unfavourable areas with a high level of accumulated environmental damage, as well as sources of radioactive contamination and prevent the creation of such areas. After a thorough check-up of the Arctic, 102 objects were identified where waste disposal is required, this list also included up to four million tons of household and construction waste, according to incomplete data, about 12 million various barrels since the Soviet Union developed this region. The Arctic Zone cannot clean itself up from the accumulated waste even in a decade because in most cases this waste includes fuel and lubricants, as well as toxic substances from military bases and airfields, it can eventually cause a technological disaster. As a result of the current critical situation in the Arctic, the Ministry of Natural Resources of Russia has developed a program with the 2020 deadline. The program was to eliminate landfills of abandoned ships along the coast of the Kola Bay, landfills in the Murmansk and Arkhangelsk Regions, as well as in Naryan-Mar, and the removal of scrap metal from the Republic of Yakutia. Fulfilling the order of the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of Russia, "The Road Map for the Elimination of Environmental Damage Caused as a Result of Activities on the Territory of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation in the Arctic Zone" have been adopted. The result of this work, according to the reports for the period of the five-year plan, was as follows: the Ministry of Defence took out more than 4.5 thousand tons of waste throughout the Arctic. Over this period of time, military environmentalists gathered and delivered to the collection points more than 1.5 thousand tons of scrap metal and cleaned 113 thousand square kilometres [3]. At a meeting of the Public Council under the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, it was stated that it remains to clear out 9 thousand square kilometres of Arctic territories at the location of the Russian Armed Forces. These works are carried out within the framework of the federal target program "Elimination of Accumulated Environmental Damage" that covers time periods up to 2025. In the annual addresses of the President of the Russian Federation to the Federal Assembly, the problem of environmental development of the northern territories is a recurrent theme. Without energy reserves, it is impossible to utilize energy resources. At the moment more than 60% of energy is generated by polluting fuels such as coal, fuel oil supplied from the mainland, which leads to centralization and an increase in the cost of products [4].

Для Цитирования:
Shelomentsev V.N., Alternative environmental development of the Arctic zone of Russia. Землеустройство, кадастр и мониторинг земель. 2021;2.
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