По всем вопросам звоните:

+7 495 274-22-22

УДК: 613.287.1 DOI:10.33920/MED-12-2107-04

Пандемия новой коронавирусной инфекции SARS-CoV2 и синдром эмоционального выгорания у медицинских работников

Острякова Н.А. ФГБОУ ВО «Самарский государственный медицинский университет» Министерства здравоохранения Российской Федерации (ФГБОУ ВО СамГМУ Минздрава России), 443099, Российская Федерация, г. Самара, ул. Чапаевская, 89, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5459-691X
Бабанов Сергей Анатольевич докт. мед. наук, профессор, заведующий кафедрой профессиональных болезней и клинической фармакологии им. заслуженного деятеля науки РФ РФ, профессора Косарева В.В., ФГБОУ ВО «Самарский государственный медицинский университет» Министерства здравоохранения Российской Федерации (ФГБОУ ВО СамГМУ Минздрава России), 443099, Российская Федерация, г. Самара, ул. Чапаевская, 89, e-mail: s.a.babanov@mail.ru, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1667-737X
Ключевые слова: синдром эмоционального выгорания, медицинские работники

Пандемия COVID-19 оказывает серьезное психологическое воздействие на медицинских работников. Происходит оперативная перестройка медицинских учреждений, условия работы практически соответствуют чрезвычайной ситуации. Ежедневно медицинские работники получают огромный объем новой информации в виде приказов, методических рекомендаций. Это создает дополнительную нагрузку в виде непрерывного «информационного шума». Проблема профессионального выгорания медиков остро стояла и до пандемии COVID-19. По данным многочисленных исследований в разных странах, практически половина медиков имеют высокие показатели профессионального перегорания, что в два раза превышает такие же показатели у населения, занятого в других сферах профессиональной деятельности.

Литература:

1. Maslach, C. Burnout: A Social Psychological Analisis / C. Maslach // The Burnout Syndrome: Current Reach, Theory, Interventions / L. W. Jones. — London, 1992. — P. 30–53.

2. Дорофеева Е.А. Синдром эмоционального выгорания как вид профессиональной деформации личности / Дорофеева Е.А. // Международный академический вестник. — 2018. — № 27. — С. 30–32.

3. Чутко Л.С. Синдром эмоционального выгорания. Клинические и психологические аспекты / Л. С. Чутко, Н. В. Козина. — М.: МЕДпреcс-информ, 2014. — 256 с.

4. Freidenberger Н. J. Staff burn-out // J. of Social Issues. 1974. V. 30. P. 159–165

5. Бабанов С.А. Профессия и стресс: синдром эмоционального выгорания / Бабанов С. А. // Энергия: экономика, техника, экология. — 2010. — № 10. — С. 74–79.

6. Водопьянова Н. Е. Синдром психического выгорания в коммуникативных профессиях // Психология здоровья / под ред. Г. С. Никифорова. — СПб.: Издательство СПбГУ, 2000. — С. 443–463.

7. Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, et al.; China Novel Coronavirus Investigating and Research Team. A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019. N Engl J Med. 2020 Feb 20;382 (8):727–33. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001017

8. Wu YC, Chen CS, Chan YJ. The outbreak of COVID-19: An overview. J Chin Med Assoc. 2020 Mar;83 (3):217–20. doi: 10.1097/JCMA.0000000000000270

9. Opening address by the Director-General at a COVID-19 press briefing on March 11, 2020. Published online at WHO.int. (In Russ.)]. https://www.who.int/ru/dg/speeches/detail/ who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-onCOVID-19–11-march-2020

10. Sulkowski, L. COVID-19 pandemic; recession, virtual revolution leading to de-globalization? J. Intercult. Manag. 2020, 12, 1–11. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef ]

11. Vieira, C. M.; Franco, O. H.; Restrepo, C. G.; Abel, T. COVID-19: The forgotten priorities of the pandemic. Maturitas 2020, 136, 38–41. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef ]

12. Macintyrea CR: On a knife’s edge of a COVID-19 pandemic: is containment still possible. Public Health Res Pract. 2020; 30

13. Brooks SK, Webster RK, Smith LE, et al.: The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. Lancet 2020; 395:912–920Crossref, Medline, Google Scholar

14. Lai J, Ma S, Wang Y. Factors associated with mental health outcomes among health care workers exposed to Coronavirus Disease 2019. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3 (3):e203976. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.3976

15. Khan S, Siddique R, Bai AAQ, Li Z, Li H, Shereen MA, et al. The spread of novel coronavirus has created an alarming situation worldwide. J Infect Public Health. 2020;13 (4) 469–71. doi: 10.1016/j.jiph.2020.03.005

16. Sun N, Shi S, Jiao D. A Qualitative study on the psychological experience of caregivers of COVID-19 patients. Am J Infect Control. 2020 48 (6):592–8. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2020.03.018

17. Yin X, Zeng L. A study on the psychological needs of nurses caring for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 from the perspective of the existence, relatedness, and growth theory. Int J Nurs Sci. 2020. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnss.2020.04.002

18. Misra A. Doctors and healthcare workers at frontline of COVID 19 epidemic: admiration, a pat on the back, and need for extreme caution. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2020;14 (3):255–6. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2020.03.006

19. Alsubaie S, Temsah MH, Al-Eyadhy AA, Gossady I, Hasan GM, Al-rabiaah A, et al. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus epidemic impact on healthcare workers’ risk perceptions, work and personal lives. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2019;13:920–926. doi: 10.3855/ jidc.11753

20. Perlis RH. Exercising Heart and Head in Managing Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Wuhan. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3 (3):e204006. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.4006

21. Kang L, Ma S, Chen M, et al. Impact on mental health and perceptions of psychological care among medical and nursing staff in Wuhan during the 2019 novel coronavirus disease outbreak: a cross sectional study. Brain Behav Immun. 2020;87:11–7.

22. Goulia P, Mantas C, Dimitroula D, Mantis D, Hyphantis T. General hospital staff worries, perceived sufficiency of information and associated psychological distress during the A/H1N1 influenza pandemic. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:322. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-10-322

23. Vyas KJ, Delaney EM, Webb-Murphy JA, Johnston SL. Psychological Impact of Deploying in Support of the U. S. Response to Ebola: a systematic review and meta-analysis of past outbreaks. Military Med. 2016;181 (11-12):1515–31. doi: 10.7205/MILMED–D-15–00473

24. Maunder RG, Lancee WJ, Balderson KE. Long-term psychological and occupational effects of providing hospital healthcare during SARS outbreak. Emerg Infect Dis 2006; 2 (12): 924–32. doi: 10.3201/eid1212.060584

25. Chan AOM, Huak CY. Psychological impact of the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak on healthcare workers in a medium size regional general hospital in Singapore. Occup Med (Lond). 2004;54 (3):190–6. doi: 10.1093/occmed/kqh027

26. Nickell LA, Crighton EJ, Tracy CS. Psychosocial effects of SARS on hospital staff: survey of a large tertiary care institution. CMAJ. 2004;170 (5):793–8. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.1031077

27. Tam CW, Pang EP, Lam LC, Chiu HF. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Hong Kong in 2003: stress and psychological impact among healthcare workers. Psychol Med. 2004;34 (7):1197–204. doi: 10.1017/s0033291704002247

28. Khalid I, Khalid TJ, Qabajah MR, Barnard AG, Qushmaq IA. Healthcare Workers Emotions, Perceived Stressors and Coping Strategies During MERS-CoV Outbreak. Clin Med Res. 2016;14 (1):7–14. doi: 10.3121/cmr.2016.1303

29. Tam CW, Pang EP, Lam LC, Chiu HF. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Hong Kong in 2003: stress and psychological impact among healthcare workers. Psychol Med. 2004;34 (7):1197–204. doi: 10.1017/s0033291704002247

30. Park JS, Lee EH, Park NR, Choi YH. Mental health of nurses working at a governmentdesignated hospital during a MERS-CoV outbreak: a cross-sectional study. Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 2018;32:2–6. doi: 10.1016/j.apnu.2017.09.006

31. Duan L, Zhu G: Psychological interventions for people affected by the COVID-19 epidemic. Lancet Psychiatry 2020; 7:300–302Crossref, Medline, Google Scholar

32. Xiao H: The effects of social support on sleep quality of medical staff treating patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in January and February 2020 in China. Med Sci Monit 2020; 26: e923549–1 — e923549-8Crossref, Google Scholar

33. Kang L, Li Y, Hu S, Chen M, Yang C, Yang BX, et al. The mental health of medical workers in Wuhan, China dealing with the 2019 novel coronavirus. Lancet Psychiatry. 2020;7 (3):pp.e14. doi: 10.1016/S2215–0366 (20) 30047-X

34. Liu C-Y, Yang Y-z, Zhang X–M, et al. The prevalence and influencing factors for anxiety in medical workers fighting COVID-19 in China: a cross-sectional survey. Available at SSRN 3548781. 2020;148: e98.

35. Lu W, Wang H, Lin Y, et al. Psychological status of medical workforce during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study. Psychiatry Res. 2020;288:112936

36. Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, et al.; China Novel Coronavirus Investigating and Research Team. A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019. N Engl J Med. 2020 Feb 20;382 (8):727–33. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001017

37. Guo J, Liao L, Wang B, et al. Psychological effects of COVID-19 on hospital staff: a national cross-sectional survey of China Mainland. Available at SSRN 3550050. 2020. In press.

38. Lai J, Ma S, Wang Y. Factors associated with mental health outcomes among health care workers exposed to Coronavirus Disease 2019. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3 (3):e203976. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.3976

39. Dai Y, Hu G, Xiong H, et al. Psychological impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak on healthcare workers in China.medRxiv. 2020. In press

1. Oils, C. Burnout: A Social-Psychological Analysis / S. Oils // The Burnout Syndrome: Current Developments, Theory, Intervention / L. W. Jones. — London, 1992. — P. 30-53.

2. Dorofeeva, E. A. the Syndrome of emotional burnout as a form of professional deformation of the person / Dorofeeva, E. A. // international academic journal. - 2018. - No. 27. - p. 30-32.

3. Chutko L. S. The syndrome of emotional burnout. Clinical and psychological aspects / L. S. Chutko, N. V. Kozina. - M.: MEDpress-inform 2014,. - 256 p.

4. Freudenberger N. J. Personnel burnout / / J. Social problems. 1974. V. 30. P. 159-165

5. Babanov S. A. Profession and stress: the syndrome of emotional burnout / Babanov S. A. / / Energiya: ekonomika, tekhnika, ekologiya. — 2010. — No. 10. - pp. 74-79.

6. Vodopyanova N. E. The syndrome of mental burnout in communicative professions / / Psychology of health / edited by G. S. Nikiforov. - St. Petersburg: Publishing House of St. Petersburg State University, 2000. - p. 443-463.

7. Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, et al.; China New Coronavirus Research and Development Group. New coronavirus from pneumonia patients in China, 2019. N Engl J Med. 2020 Feb 20;382 (8):727-33. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001017

8. Wu YC, Chen CS, Chan YJ. COVID-19 outbreak: Overview. J Chin Med Assoc. 2020 Mar;83 (3):217-20. doi: 10.1097/JCMA.0000000000000270

9. Opening remarks by the Director General at the COVID-19 press briefing on 11 March 2020. Published online at WHO.int. (In Russian)]. https://www.who.int/ru/dg/speeches/detail/ who-director-General-s-introduction-to-media briefing-onCOVID-19–11-march-2020

10. Sulkovsky, L. COVID-19 pandemic; recession, virtual revolution leading to deglobalization? J. Intercult. Manag. 2020, 12, 1-11. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

11. Vieira, K. M.; Franco, O. H.; Restrepo, K. G.; Abel, T. COVID-19: forgotten priorities of the pandemic. Maturitas 2020, 136, 38-41. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

12. Macintyrea CR: On the knife edge of the COVID-19 pandemic: Is containment possible? Public Health Res Pract. 2020; 30

13. Brooks SC, Webster RC, Smith LE et al.: The psychological impact of quarantine and ways to reduce it: a quick overview of the evidence. Lancet 2020; 395:912-920Crossref, Medline, Google Scholar

14. Lai J, Ma S, Wang Yu. Factors related to mental health outcomes among health care workers exposed to coronavirus disease 2019. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3 (3):e203976. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.3976

15. Khan S, Siddiq R, Bai AAK, Li Z, Li X, Sherin MA, etc. The spread of the new coronavirus has created an alarming situation around the world. J Infect public health. 2020;13 (4) 469-71. doi: 10.1016/j.jiph.2020.03.005

16. Sun N, Shi S, Jiao D. Qualitative study of the psychological experience of caregivers of patients with COVID-19. Am J Infection control. 2020 48 (6):592-8. doi: 10.1016/j. ajic. 2020. 03. 018

17. Yin X, Tseng L. A study of the psychological needs of nurses caring for patients with coronavirus disease in 2019, from the point of view of the theory of existence, relationship and growth. Int J Nurs Sci. 2020. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnss.2020.04.002

18. Misra A. Doctors and health workers at the forefront of the COVID 19 epidemic: Admiration, patting on the back, and the need for extreme caution. Diabetes is A Metabolic Syndrome. 2020;14 (3):255-6. doi: 10.1016/j. dsx. 2020. 03. 006

19. Alsubaie S, Temsah MH, Al-Eyadh AA, Gossady I, Hasan GM, Al-rabiah A, etc. The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus epidemic is affecting the risk perception of health workers, their work and personal lives. J Infect Developers. 2019;13:920-926. doi: 10.3855/jidc.11753

20. Perlis R. Training of the heart and head in the fight against coronavirus disease in 2019 in Wuhan. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3 (3):e204006. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.4006

21. Kang L, Ma S, Chen M, etc. The impact on mental health and the perception of psychological care among medical and nursing staff in Wuhan during the new coronavirus outbreak in 2019: a cross-sectional study. Immunology of brain behavior. 2020;87:11-7.

22. Gulia P, Mantas S, Dimitrula D, Bogomol D, Gifantis T. General hospital staff anxiety, perceived information sufficiency and associated psychological stress during the A/H1N1 influenza pandemic. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:322. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-10-322

23. Vyas, K. J., Delaney, E. M., Webb-Murphy, J. A., and Johnston, S. L. The psychological impact of deployment in support of the U.S. Ebola response: a systematic review and meta-analysis of past outbreaks. Military medicine. 2016;181 (11-12):1515-31. doi: 10.7205/ MILMED–D-15–00473

24. Maunder R. G., Lancy W. J., Balderson K. E. Long-term psychological and professional consequences of providing medical care in hospitals during an outbreak of SARS. Emerg Infect Dis 2006; 2 (12): 924-32. doi: 10.3201/eid1212.060584

25. Chan AOM, Huak SAI. The psychological impact of the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak on health workers at the medium-sized regional General Hospital in Singapore. Occup Med (Lond). 2004;54 (3):190-6. doi: 10.1093/occmed/kqh027

26. Nickell L. A., Crichton E. J., Tracy K. S. Psychosocial consequences of SARS for hospital staff: a survey of a large tertiary care facility. CMAJ. 2004;170 (5):793-8. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.1031077

27. Tam CW, Pang EP, Lam LC, Chiu HF. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Hong Kong in 2003: stress and psychological impact on health workers. Psychol Med. 2004;34 (7):1197-204. doi: 10.1017/s0033291704002247

28. Khalid I, Khalid TJ, Kabaja MR, Barnard AG, Kushmak IA. Health care workers ' emotions, Perceived stressors, and Coping strategies During a MERS-CoV Outbreak. Clin Med Res. 2016;14 (1):7-14. doi: 10.3121/cmr.2016.1303

29. Tam CW, Pang EP, Lam LC, Chiu HF. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Hong Kong in 2003: stress and psychological impact on health workers. Psychol Med. 2004;34 (7):1197-204. doi: 10.1017/s0033291704002247

30. Park JC, Lee EH, Park NR, Choi YH. Mental health of nurses working at a government-designated hospital during the MERS-CoV outbreak: a cross-sectional study. Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 2018;32:2-6. doi: 10.1016/j.apnu. 2017. 09. 006

31. Duan L, Zhu G: Psychological interventions for people affected by the COVID-19 epidemic. Lancet Psychiatry 2020; 7: 300-302Crossref, Medline, Google Scholar

32. Xiao X: The impact of social support on the sleep quality of medical personnel treating patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in January and February 2020 in China. Med Sci Monit 2020; 26: e923549–1 — e923549-8Crossref, Google Scholar

33. Kang L, Li Wu, Hu S, Chen M, Yang S, Yang BH, etc. Mental health care workers in Wuhan, China dealing with the new 2019 coronavirus. Lancet Psychiatry. 2020;7 (3):pp.e14. doi: 10.1016/ S2215–0366 (20) 30047-X

34. Liu S-U, Yang U-z, Zhang X-M, etc. Prevalence and factors affecting anxiety in health care workers fighting COVID-19 in China: a cross-sectional survey. Available at SSRN 3548781. 2020; 148: e98.

35. Lu V, Wang X, Lin Yi, etc. The psychological status of health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study. Psychiatry Res. 2020;288:112936

36. Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, et al.; China New Coronavirus Research and Development Group. New coronavirus from pneumonia patients in China, 2019. N Engl J Med. 2020 Feb 20;382 (8):727-33. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001017

37. Guo J, Liao L, Wang B, etc. The psychological impact of COVID-19 on hospital staff: a national cross-sectional survey of mainland China. Available at SSRN 3550050. 2020. In the press.

38. Lai J, Ma S, and Wang Yu. Factors related to mental health outcomes among health care workers exposed to the 2019 coronavirus disease. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3 (3):e203976. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.3976

39. Dai Yi, Hu G, Xiong X, etc. The psychological impact of the 2019 coronavirus disease outbreak (COVID-19) on health care workers in China. medRxiv. 2020. In the press

Для цитирования: Острякова Н.А., Бабанов С. А Пандемия новой коронавирусной инфекции SARS-CoV2 и синдром эмоционального выгорания у медицинских работников

For citation: Ostryakova N.A., Babanov S.A. SARS-CoV2 new coronavirus pandemic and burnout syndrome in healthcare professionals

Среди профессионально обусловленных психических феноменов особое место отводится синдрому эмоционального выгорания [1]. Согласно определению Всемирной организации здравоохранения синдром эмоционального выгорания (СЭВ) представляет собой физическое, эмоциональное или мотивационное истощение, характеризующееся нарушением продуктивности в работе, усталостью, бессонницей, повышенной подверженностью соматическим заболеваниям [2–6].

В начале декабря 2019 г. в 11-миллионном городе Ухань (Китайская Народная Республика) произошла вспышка новой коронавирусной инфекции COVID-19, вызванной одноцепочечным (+) РНК-вирусом — SARS-CoV-2 (Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus). Этот патоген способен передаваться от человека к человеку воздушно-капельным (при кашле, чихании, разговоре, поцелуях), воздушно-пылевым и контактным путем. Согласно крупным выборкам, медиана инкубационного периода заболевания составляет 4–5 дней. Большинство случаев инфицирования являются асимптомными и легкими, однако в 5 % новая коронавирусная инфекция COVID-19 приводит к развитию жизнеугрожающих состояний и осложнений [7, 8]. 11 марта 2020 г. Всемирная организация здравоохранения охарактеризовала распространение новой коронавирусной инфекции COVID-19 как пандемию [Вступительное слово Генерального директора на пресс-брифинге по COVID-19 11 марта 2020 г. [9].

Пандемия COVID-19 изменила жизнь и поведение многих людей (привычки, обычаи, способы взаимоотношений и т. д.) [10] и специалистов (протоколы лечения, меры изоляции, индивидуальные и общественные меры профилактики). Данная модель поведения обусловлена прежде всего, во-первых, необходимостью защитить себя от вируса, а во-вторых, желанием противостоять социально-экономическому кризису [11, 12].

Для Цитирования:
Острякова Н.А., Бабанов Сергей Анатольевич, Пандемия новой коронавирусной инфекции SARS-CoV2 и синдром эмоционального выгорания у медицинских работников. Терапевт. 2021;7.
Полная версия статьи доступна подписчикам журнала
Язык статьи:
Действия с выбранными: